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High seismic performance of GRS integral bridge with approach fills of geogrid-reinforced cement-mixed gravelly soil

A new cost-effective high-performance bridge system, called the GRS integral bridge, was developed to alleviate several serious inherent problems with conventional type simple girder bridges: i.e., a low seismic stability of the girder and approach fills, costly massive abutments often requiring the use of pile foundation, bumps developing immediately behind the abutments, costly construction and long-term maintenance of girder bearings, etc. Both ends of the girder are structurally integrated to the top of a pair of full-height rigid (FHR) facings, while a pair of approach blocks comprising geogrid-reinforced wellcompacted lightly cement-mixed well-graded gravelly soil are integrated to the FHR facings. To minimize