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Water and wind erosion are the most common and greatest natural harmful effects among all erosion processes. The soil erosion process includes detachment, transportation and deposition of soil particles from a consolidated soil body. Soil erosion can be divided into natural erosion and accelerated erosion. The factors controlling soil erosion are the erosivity of the eroding agent, the erodibility of the soil, the slope of the land and the nature of the plant cover. Civil engineering projects often result in disturbing on-site slope soil surfaces. The disturbed bare soils on slopes are highly sensitive to runoff and erosion process. The water erosion process on a slope leads to partial or complete loss of the surface soil layer. Such eroded slopes have lower fertility due to the loss of soil particles, nutrients and organic matter, affecting the soil structure, water holding capacity and porosity. The establishment of plants and subsequent development of a protective vegetation cover are hampered. Slopes are therefore exposed to further and more severe erosion processes. The strategies for soil conservation must be based on covering the soil to protect it from raindrop impact; increasing the infiltration capacity of the soil to reduce runoff; improving the aggregate stability of the soil; and increasing the surface roughness to reduce runoff and wind velocity. Various conservation techniques include agronomic measures, soil management and mechanical methods. Erosion and shallow landslides are commonly treated with artificial coverage materials in conjunction with vegetation. Geotextiles, geocells and geosynthetic erosion control products have been demonstrated effective in reducing erosion and subsequent slope degradation processes. The Soil erosion influence factors and mechanisms on slopes are discussed. Laboratory, field and engineering case studies on various geosynthetics for erosion control applications are also reviewed and discussed.